Flying Tigers
FLYING TIGERS > CHAPTERS 12-18

12 - "Did You Have Any Warning?"

Epithets: Joseph Stilwell & Theodore White, The Stilwell Papers (Sloan, 1948) and Schaller, U.S. Crusade in China, passim. Bissell over all: AMISSCA 4 Feb. Personally am willing: Chennault papers 19. I spoke for Bissell etc: Stilwell & White 39. Arnold is of opinion: Samson, Chennault 118. Arnold and Stillwell insist and Groco told me: Secretary's File 38, FDR Library. Supplies and spares: Chennault papers 8, 28, 52.

Sue Upfill: An American in Burma 202. Our new ships etc: R.T. Smith, Tale of a Tiger 231-232; 3rd Sq log; Chennault papers 52. A tired etc: Stilwell & White 48; Life 30 Mar; AMISSCA 5 Mar; "Chronology of 10th Air Force," AFHRC 105.2-10.

General Issimo: 3rd Sq log.She absolutely captured: Donovan letter 1 Mar, Pistole collection. Madame gushed: Bright in Atlantic. Also Boyington, Black Sheep 79; Greenlaw 116-122.

Had a talk: Stilwell & White 49-50; Frank Dorn, Walkout (Crowell, 1971) 31; AMISSCA 4 Mar. Escorting the Chiangs: Bond & Anderson 122; Keeton diary; Group War Diary 5 Mar; 3rd Sq log; Boyington 80-88; Losonsky, Flying Tiger 86-87. Chongqing conference and Believe Chennault matter: AMISSCA 5 Mar, 7 Mar.

CAF commissions: Group War Diary 11 Mar. The paperwork war in AMISSCA: promotions 4, 13, 15, 19 Mar; Strongly recommend 21 Mar; majors, captains, typewriter ribbons 26-27 Mar; only air officer 26 Mar.
     Page 227: Lonberg: Robert M. Smith 71; Greenlaw 134; Reynolds author interview. Uniform regulations: Chennault papers 25.

Magwe: Stevenson in Supp. London Gazette; Philip Moyes, Bomber Squadrons of the RAF (Macdonald & Jane, 1974) 157; Rawlings, Fighter Squadrons 47, 169, 275; A.J. Young & D.W. Warne, Sixty Squadron (privately printed) 142; Group War Diary 15 Mar. Retreat of 17 Sq: Hemingway, Wings Over Burma 113; JDA, Nanpo 608; Shores et al, Bloody Shambles II:345. 67 Sq withdrawn: Rawlings 169; Bond & Anderson 125. B-17s: "Chronology of 10th Air Force."

Somewhere in Burma: N.Y. Times 8 Mar. Tomahawks crashed: Chennault papers 17. We go swimming: 3rd Sq log. AVG equipment: AMISSCA 18 Mar. It was sitting etc: Jernstedt author interview. Incendiaries: Baisden, Flying Tiger to Air Commando 50, 54. I missed the hangar: combat report in Pistole collection. JAAF losses: Shores et al, Bloody Shambles II:350. These pilots will: 3rd Sq log.

Japanese deployments: JDA, Nanpo 693-697; Izawa in Aero Album; Izawa & Hata, Nihon rikugun sentokitai 25, 48, 124, 133, 176; Izawa, Nihon rikugun jubakutai 183. Ishikawa: Hata et al, Japanese Army Air Force Fighter Units 50, 143; Shores et al II:347. Extraordinary concentration: Air Ministry, Wings of the Phoenix (HMSO, 1949) 9. We are prepared: 3rd Sq log. A magnificent: Stevenson in Supp. London Gazette. Descending in a dive etc: Shores et al II:350-352. Japanese account: JDA, Nanpo 698-701; Izawa, Nihon rikugun jubakutai 183.

Bandits from the southeast: Hemingway, Wings Over Burma 149. After the third: Dupouy combat report, Pistole collection; Dupouy author interview; R.T. Smith, Tale of a Tiger 257. This is the only possible match for Everard's claim of "selling" a victory claim to an AVG pilot, but Dupouy's shoot-down (confirmed in Japanese accounts) was nowhere near the place cited by the Canadian pilot.

Wherever I looked: Hemingway 157. I got behind: Groh combat report, Pistole collection. Also Izawa & Hata 48. He came in fast: Wolf & Ingells in Air Trails Pictorial. Largest air battle: JT&A 12 May. Look out: Group War Diary 21 Mar.

13 - "There Is Always a Way"

Fauth promoted: Chennault papers 18. Considerable damage: Stevenson in Supp. London Gazette. Absolutely no warning: Group War Diary 22 Mar. Evacuation: 3rd Sq log; Hemingway, Wings Over Burma 162; Shores et al, Bloody Shambles II:355-356. Japanese claims: Tanaka, "Burma Air Operations Record"; Sekigawa Eiichiro, Pictorial History of Japanese Military Aviation (Allan, 1974) 120.

Bronchitis and mission planning: Chennault, Way of a Fighter 147-148. Jap Air Force headquarters: Bond & Anderson 130. Newkirk foreboding: Hill & Schaupp 140. Loiwing: Rodewald and Neale diaries; Greenlaw 190-191. They almost scared: Keeton diary. After tomorrow: Boyington, Black Sheep 98. Here goes nothing: Neale diary. All right, you curly-headed: Bond & Anderson 132. The next target: Geselbracht combat report, Pistole collection. As I pulled up: Keeton diary. Also Group War Diary 24 Mar. Bob Bergin visited the site of Newkirk's crash in 1994 and interviewed Thai witnesses. His reconstruction of the crash is posted on the Annals of the Flying Tigers..

I nosed downward: Bond & Anderson 134. Japanese taking off: Yasuda Yoshito in Eiko Hayabusa sentai (Konnichi no Wadaisha, 1978) 140, 170. The aircraft: Boyington combat report, AVG archives. Heaviest I have ever: Neale diary; two of them: Group War Diary. I circled back: Rector combat report, AVG archives. Soon we were: Bond & Anderson 137. U.S. Fliers etc: N.Y. Times 25 Mar. Destroyed the effective strength: Bill Yenne, When Tigers Ruled the Sky: Flying Tigers: American Outlaw Pilots over China in World War II (Berkley 2016) 197. Mr. Yenne is quoting Chennault's 1949 account of the raid, which I suppose is something of an excuse, though not much.

Actual damage and Akyab attack: JDA, Nanpo 698, 703; Shores et al, Bloody Shambles II:357-358. Secret runway: Hinoki Yohei, Hayabusa sentotai cho Kato 240-241. Raids on Heho etc: Izawa, Nihon rikugun jubakutai 183; JDA, Nanpo 707. McGarry as prisoner: Hinoki, Hayabusa 244; Hinoki letter to author 1989; Robert Andrade interview 1989; U.S. Embassy memo 22 Apr 1943, Chennault papers 39. Suggest repaired: Chennault papers 8. Special missions: Group War Diary 24 Mar.

All of the technical: 3rd Sq log. Kittyhawks arrived: Chennault papers 52. We're all against and Oley sighted: R.T. Smith, Tale of a Tiger 260, 263. Boyington crash: Bruce Gamble, Black Sheep One (Presidio, 2000) 198; Leo Schramm, Leo the Tiger: True Stories About the Flying Tigers From World War II (Green Shields, 1998). Wedding: Boyington 107; Jernstedt author interview; Greenlaw 195. Full of whiskey, etc; Gamble 199.

Searching for AVG: Hinoki, Tsubasa no kessen 64-66. The excellent warning: Hemingway 185; also RAF 113 Sq log. Fifteen small planes: JDA, Nanpo 714. 64th Sentai to Loiwing: Hinoki, Hayabusa 250-251. Many ships headed, Japs strafing, It was the most thrilling: R.T. Smith 271. He rolled over: Olson combat report, Pistole collection. Never have I been: John Donovan letter 9 Apr; also his combat report in Group War Diary. I kept firing and I opened all guns: Groh and Hodges combat reports, Pistole collection. Hayabusa armament, It started smoking, and I fired from: Laughlin, Wolfe, and Overend combat reports, Pistole collection. Three wrecks near field: Donovan letter 9 Apr. Japanese pilots lost: Hinoki, Tusbasa 309; Izawa in Aero Album; Izawa & Hata, Nihon rikugun sentokitai 320; JDA, Nanpo 714. There was nothing: Hinoki, Hayabusa 254-255. Why were two: Group War Diary (8 Apr).

Flying Tigers

14 - "Terminate Our Contracts"

AVG raids: Bond & Anderson 147; Group War Diary 8 Apr. Kittyhawk: George Burgard diary. My God, do we: Greenlaw & Ford 157. Decals: Clements, American Volunteer Group Colours 78. Assaults: Bond & Anderson 158; Greenlaw 161-162; Rodewald diary. Frank Metasavage and I: Losonsky, Flying Tiger 87. The man who did it: Greenlaw 168. For firing his gun: Chennault papers 28.

His value to China: AMISSCA 31 Mar. After hour's conference: Secretary's File 38, FDR Library. Cardinal principal: AMISSCA 2 Apr. It is recommended: AMISSCA 4 Apr. Told him I couldn't and I was the boss: Stilwell & White 77, 82-83. There is something: Keeton diary. AVG meeting: Bond & Anderson 150. Through private channels: AMISSCA 16 Apr. For Chennault induction, see AMISSCA 8 Apr, 17 Jul.

Mission to Mengzi, There is definately: Keeton diary. Hill and Chennault to Loiwing: Group War Diary 9 Apr; 3rd Sq log. Return of 64th Sentai: Yasuda in Eiko Hayabusa sentai 144-146; Hinoki, Hayabusa 258-264; JDA, Nanpo 175. Some one hollered: 3rd Sq log. Also Keeton diary; Group War Diary 10 Apr. I made three passes: Brouk combat report, Pistole collection. After firing at one, etc: R.T. Smith combat report, Pistole collection. Decided to die: Hinoki, Hayabusa 265; his return and Kato's actions: 267-270. Also Izawa in Aero Album. RAF losses and claims: Group War Diary 10 Apr; Hemingway, Wings Over Burma 187-188; Shores et al, Bloody Shambles II:365. He went wild: Older Columbia interview. All I can do: Yasuda 149. For the next half, I looked south: Older and Smith combat reports, Pistole collection. Japanese losses: Hinoki, Tsubasa appendix.

Saturday events: R.T. Smith 276; 3rd Sq log; Keeton diary; RAF 113 Sq log. We hit our checkpoints Peter Wright in Sportsman Pilot Mid-May 1943. I was scared: Wright loc cit. Also Hill & Schaupp 149; combat reports in Group War Diary 14 Apr. Request you arrange: Group War Diary 14 Apr. Mutaguchi: Hata Ikuhiko in The China Quagmire (Columbia Univ. Press, 1983); JT&A 1 July 1942.

Petach crash: Group War Diary 15 Apr; Gordon Seagrave, Burma Surgeon (Norton, 1943) 206. Chennault commissioned: AMISSCA 17 Jul. It is believed: 3rd Sq log; also R.T. Smith 282; George Burgard diary. Please issue instructions: AMISSCA 20 Apr. If you want to show: Keeton diary; Greenlaw 193. You fellows: Rector author interview. The pilots are bitter: Hotz, With General Chennault 216. We the undersigned: Chennault papers 28.

His cherubic face: Howard, Roar of the Tiger 143. Look, I don't like: Hill & Schaupp 146. White-painted Army 98: Shores et al II:368. There wasn't much: Keeton diary. We had circled and Situation here: Group War Diary 20 Apr. Fujimori: Shores et al II:368. Namsang mission: 3rd Sq log; Group War Diary 21 Apr. JAAF movements: Hinoki, Hayabusa 271; JDA, Nanpo 213, 215. As they approached: Group War Diary 21 Apr. One bullet: Seagrave 218.

Brigadier general: Army Directory 20 Oct 1942. Following from Chennault: AMISSCA 22 Apr. A similar plan was advanced when the Americans in the RAF Eagle Squadrons were returning to U.S. military service: the USAAF wanted to distribute them among other fighter squadrons, but the pilots themselves demanded that they be kept together as a unit.

Boyington in Kunming: Boyington, Black Sheep 110-117; Bond & Anderson 158; Boyington to USMC historian 1981, AVG archives; Gamble, Black Sheep One 200-206. Groh's journey: Group War Diary 9 Jun; Robert M. Smith, With Chennault 91; Bond & Anderson 161.

Schwartz in Calcutta: Bond & Anderson 153; Robert DeWolfe letter, Chennault papers 7. Instructors to squadrons: Chennault papers 20. For more about Ajaz Baumler, see Kirk Setzer on the Annals of the Flying Tigers.

15 - "This May Screw Us Completely"

To Lashio: Greenlaw 177. Karen guerrillas: Harold Klein letter to author 1987. Through continuous: Terakura, "Burma Operations Record." Disaster at Loikaw etc: Stilwell & White 90, 92. I could see etc: Group War Diary 24 Apr. Mail: John Hennessy author interview 1988. Perhaps someone: Greenlaw 203.

Hit him with a burst: Laughlin combat report, Pistole collection. The Jap burst: Raine combat report, Pistole collection. Also Group War Diary 25 Apr; R.T. Smith 291. Determined to avenge: JT&A 12 Jun. Use all available: Group War Diary 26 Apr.

64th Sentai to Loiwing: Hinoki, Hayabusa 271. Reconnaissance?: Stilwell & White, 93. Your urgent message: Group War Diary 27 Apr. Evacuating Loiwing: 3rd Sq log; 113 Sq log; Hemingway, Wings Over Burma, 188. Ferry Command: Greenlaw 216; Caleb Haynes to U.S. Army historian 1943, via Martha Byrd.

We got as much done: Rodewald diary. Tried to get: Group War Diary 28 Apr. Fell off, I heard, I saw Older: Bishop, Olson, and Jernstedt combat reports, Pistole collection. Pulled up, After about three, Large sloppy, and I still had speed: Overend, Haywood, Smith, and Green combat reports, Pistole collection.

Guess we're going etc: Robert Scott, God Is My Co-Pilot (Ballantine, 1956) 75-77. Also Haynes letter. Though Scott puts himself at the center of the action, he was Haynes's co-pilot on these flights. Flying to Mangshi: R.T. Smith 294. Shot up by a P-40: Izawa in Aero Album. Also Yasuda in Eiko Hayabusa sentai; Kuroe, Aa Hayabusa sentotai 163-166; Hinoki, Tsubasa 309. We knew you were battling: Kuroe 168.

Parachute drop on Lashio: JDA, Nanpo 717-720; Yasuda loc cit; Shores et al, Bloody Shambles II:370. Burma reporting net: Group War Diary 30 Apr; also 1 May. Looks like a gorilla: Ex-CBI Roundup Jul 1989. Took off about etc: Haynes letter. Auction sale etc: Haynes letter. To Mangshi: 3rd Sq log; R.M. Smith, With Chennault 83; Keeton diary; R.T. Smith 296-298; Hill & Schaupp 152. To Baoshan: Group War Diary 2 May; Bond & Anderson 161; Neale diary.

Advance by bounds: Terakura, "Burma Operations Record." The Japanese are making: R.M. Smith, With Chennault 82. British stragglers: Frank Dorn, Walkout (Crowell, 1971) 145. Also Jack Belden, Retreat With Stilwell (Knopf, 1943) 277, 285, 301. Major Seagrave's ambulance drivers were probably conscientious objectors; not all may have been Quakers, though they are generally referred to as such.

No fires and My second burst: Group War Diary 4 May. I followed: Neale diary. A great many stores: JDA, Nanpo 722. Note the peculiar: JT&A 24 May. On my third: Bond & Anderson 164. I swung my head etc: Bond & Anderson 165-168.

Evacuating Baoshan: Neale diary; Haynes letter. Through the calm etc: Group War Diary 5 May.

Flying Tigers

16 - "Piss on Bissell"

The brave and gallant: JT&A 20 May. Also Hayashi Iwao in Shichi jusan butai kaisoki; Terakura, "Burma Operations Record"; Young, China and the Helping Hand 242; JDA, Nanpo 717-723; anon, "Southern Area Air Operations" (J.M. 31, no date).

JAAF losses: British Military Intelligence, "Japanese Air Losses" (Tokyo, 1953) at Imperial War Museum AL 5190. Last autumn: JT&A 17 May. Pursue the enemy: Terakura. For the Red Dragon division, see Hill & Schaupp, Tex Hill 158-160, and Howard, Roar of the Tiger 146. The fiction's creator seems to have been Robert Hotz in With General Chennault 224.

To destroy the Burma Road: Group War Diary 7 May. Also Group War Diary 6 May; Chennault, Fighter 163. Russian bomb: Hill & Schaupp loc cit. Made first pass: Group War Diary 8 May. Also R.T. Smith 305.

Dive bombing: Donald Lopez author interview. As I visited Don over the years, he retained the title of assistant director of the National Air & Space Museum, but he gradually moved from the grand suite of the director's office to a lonely outpost in the library stacks, as the museum increasingly became the domain of administators rather than aviators, a symbolc demotion that never seemed to bother him in the slightest. Then, in the great kerfluffle about Enola Gay and the fiftieth anniversary of the Hiroshima bombing, the administrators were thrown out and the war veterans returned to top positions. Don moved back to the director's suite, as amiable as ever, and he came to work every morning until his death at the age of eighty-four. We will not see his like again.

His first burst etc: Group War Diary 9 May. Also R.T. Smith 305; Neale diary; Ikari, Shinshitei 122, 126.The trucks were and Two or three: Group War Diary 10 May. McAllister's odyssey: 3rd Sq log. Tom Jones: Greenlaw 171.

Chennault lays the raid etc: C.H. Laughlin in Foundation (Spring 1983). A DC-3 type etc: Group War Diary 12 May. Like a gas well: Laughlin loc cit. Japanese version: Izawa & Hata, Nihon rikugun sentokitai 73. If we destroy: Group War Diary 13 May. Promotions: Chennault papers 28. Dear folks: Donovan radiogram in Pistole collection. If the Navy: Donovan letter 3 May, Pistole collection.

Lancers: Jasper Harrington author interview 1989; Ex-CBI Roundup Nov 1989; Chennault papers 52; Bond & Anderson 180. Cross refused to fly: George Burgard diary 24 May, 10 Jun.

Ferry Command: Haynes to U.S. Army historian; Scott, God Is My Co-Pilot 66, 93; Robert Layher author interview 1989. Thanks very much: Chennault to Haynes 10 May, via Martha Byrd. To serve as our: Chennault to Haynes. We're closing the office, prostrate in the May heat etc: Upfill, An American in Burma 202-204. Harvey wanted a commission: Jernstedt author interview.

Support for Chinese army: Group War Diary 12-15 May; Neale diary. Chennault letter to Madame: Samson, Chennault 146-147. To blow up: Bright in Atlantic. With steam squirting: Laughlin loc cit. Jones's death: Howard, Roar of the Tiger 154.

Lao Kai mission: Keeton diary; Group War Diary; Scott loc cit 106; R.T. Smith 312; Bright. We approached: "Statement of Peter Wright," Pistole collection. At the time when: JT&A 2 Jun. Even my eyelashes: Harrington author interview. He is all through: Burgard diary 10 Jun. Geselbracht refused: Keeton diary.

Might do it: Neale diary. Without a regular army commission, he would be discharged at war's end; with it, he would be retained, though at a lower grade. Financial terms: Chennault papers 18; Bond & Anderson 178. They didn't offer: Rodewald diary. A WWII "technical sergeant," like today's "specialist" rank, was a reward for skill and didn't carry a sergeant's command authority. And for any of you: Chennault, Way of a Fighter 172. Instead of keeping: Keeton diary. Up to and including: AMISSCA 10 Apr.

AVG has been: AMISSCA 2 May. The conspicuous: AMISSCA undated; also Group War Diary 6 May. Chennault and others: AMISSCA 19 May. Doolittle in Kunming: Greenlaw 228; Byrd 149.

After making several: Group War Diary 22 May; also Neale diary. Salween and Vietnam missions: Group War Diary 24-30 May. Our two eager etc: Keeton diary. Weather was very bad: Group War Diary 28 May. Pilots to Chongqing: Chennault papers 28; Bond & Anderson 184; Burgard diary. Fully qualified etc: AMISSCA 14 Jun. Piss on Bissell: Byrd 149.

17 - "Far Worse Than You Know"

23rd Fighter Group: Chennault papers 28; R.T. Smith, Tale of a Tiger 330; Group War Diary 1 Jun. Lashio raid: Haynes letter; JDA Nanpo 730. Please forward: Group War Diary 5 Jun. Also AMISSCA 6 Jun.

An island: JDA, Chugoku 281. Also Kori Katsu et al., Nihon no koku gojunen (Kantosha, 1960) 2:59-61; Wei Ju-lin et al, History of the Sino-Japanese War (Taipei: U.S. Army MAAG, 1967) 239-248. Bombing Japan: Carroll Glines, Doolittle's Tokyo Raiders (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1964) 320-322. Destroy the air bases: Shiba Takejiro, "Air Operations in the China Area" (J.M. 76, 1956).

AVG moving inland: Group War Diary 1-11 Jun. Bravery and outstanding: Group War Diary appendix. Also Bond & Anderson 184. We of the Third: 3rd Sq log. Also R.T. Smith 337-338; Keeton diary; AMISSCA 18 May.

A small camp etc: Rodewald diary. JAAF units and losses: JDA, Chugoku 300-301; Watanabe Yoji, Toryu (Sankei Shuupan, 1983) 64-66. I fired several: Group War Diary 12 Jun. light bombers, The bomber was light, I got back: Group War Diary 12 Jun. A quick burst: Rosbert, Flying Tiger Joe 86. The reverend: Bond & Anderson 188-190.

Thought it was: Neale diary. JAAF reaction: Watanabe 66; Nonaka (no first name), "Southwest Area Air Operations Record" (J.M. 56, undated). What are you fighting: Chennault papers 13. Also Rodewald diary; R.T. Smith 335. No more: Neale diary.

Deaf as a post: Brereton, The Brereton Diaries 130. Also Stilwell & White 114. Comforting party etc: Neumann, Herman the German 85, 92-93 (which reproduces the handbill).

Induction: Chennault, Fighter 172; Haynes letter; U.S. Military Mission, "American Volunteer Group" (1942) AFHRC 863.01. Everybody had a lot etc: Rodewald diary. Chennault was the one: Harrington author interview. Also Bond & Anderson 197-198; Neale diary; Neale Columbia interview.

2nd Sq at Hengyang: Bond & Anderson 198-199; Neale diary; Group War Diary 22-23 Jun. We spotted: Samson, Chennault 152. Surprise attacks: Nonaka monograph. Coming-and-go etc: JDA, Chugoku 303; Izawa & Hata, Nihon rikugun sentokitai 152.

Movement of planes: Romanus & Sunderland 157-158; Brereton 130; Samson 149; R.T. Smith 345, 348; Bond & Anderson 199; Group War Diary 23 Jun. Induction board at Guilin: Howard, Roar of the Tiger 164; Neale and Keeton diaries. From present observations: Group War Diary 23 Jun. Induction ranks: Group War Diary 1 Jul.

Goddammit and 16th Sq: Perry author interview. Also Keeton diary. Moore and Sanger: Rodewald and Keeton diaries. The boys and That whorehouse: White, In Search of History 139. No women: Stilwell & White 116. Women from Guilin and I am afraid: Samson 154. Recommend no publicity: AMISSCA 26 Jun (italics added).

He had information: Neale diary. Bob Neale came and raids: Bond & Anderson 200-202. Also Neale diary; JDA, Chugoku 304; Rodewald diary. One I fired and I opened up: Group War Diary 3 Jul. 10th Chutai: Izawa & Hata 152. While straffing: Rodewald diary. Also Neale dairy; Bond & Anderson 202.

You are directed and After talking to: Chennault papers 19.

Dove on fighters and We immediately attacked: Group War Diary 4 Jul. Madame's party: Chennault, Way of a Fighter 173-174; Group War Diary 4 Jul.

Remains - A Story of the Flying Tigers

18 - "The AVG Passed into History"

At midnight: Chennault, Fighter 174. 23rd FG: Neale diary; Scott, God Is My Co-Pilot 115-117. I dropped etc: Group War Diary 6 Jul. Reconnaissance bomber, I opened up: Group War Diary 9 Jul.

JAAF losses: Izawa Yasuho, "Japanese Fighter Units and Aces" (typescript) thanks to John Fredriksen; Hinoki, Tsubasa no kessen 307-317. Careful scrutiny etc: Group War Diary 10 Jul. Shamblin's capture: JT&A 18 Jul; Chennault papers 7. On the hot-button subject of overclaiming, see the letter by Christopher Shores on this website.

AVG planes lost: AMISSCA 2 Jul. (Stilwell's count was 82, to which I add the 2 lost on 10 Jul. The AVG had 62 Tomahawks in service when the war began; 6 out-of-service aircraft were subsequently repaired at Toungoo, 1 was assembled at Loiwing, and 47 P-40E Kittyhawks were delivered in the spring of 1942, for a total of 116.)

The flight was uneventful: Group War Diary 16 Jul. I overtook, by two Zeroes: Group War Diary 16 Jul. Had iced tea: Neale diary. All the rest etc: Rodewald diary. RAF radio mechanics: Geoffrey Ellis emails (2005); "Aircraftman Jepson of the AVG" on the Annals of the Flying Tigers.

It was after sundown: Harrington author interview. In a muggy tent etc: Hill & Schaupp 173, 181. Squadron strength: AMISSCA 4 Jul; Romanus & Sunderland 200. $3.5 million: Byrd 152. Last contingent: Bond & Anderson 208-211. The Army is out etc: Keeton diary. Passage home: Wolf & Ingells; R.T. Smith 357; Robert M. Smith 108. I knew you were doing: Jernstedt author interview.

Y'all follow me: Donald Lopez author interview 1989. Hello, Frillmann: Frillmann 174. Bissell as commander: AMISSCA 17 Jul; Robert Scott, The Day I Owned the Sky (Ballentine 1956) 89. It's the man etc: Time 15 Feb 1943. Stoned out of his gourd: Carl Brown author interview (1989). Also Byrd 170, 277-278; Samson 218, 288-290. I corresponded with Joe Chennault in 2005; thanks also to Brad Smith.

Take advantage of: Samson 263-264. Also Byrd 411. Paxton figures: Flying Tigers Inc, Bill of Rights Requesting Veteran Recognition by Congress (privately printed 1945). Story of Barbie: Robert M. Smith 110. I seen my duty: N.Y. Herald Tribune 19 Jan 1944. McClure: Kirk Setzer emails 2005; "The Last Flying Tiger Ace" on the Annals of the Flying Tigers. Henry Olson's Congressional campaign from Life 24 Aug 1942; his later service from 368th Fighter Group online.

Denial of benefits: Mott author interview; Flying Tigers Inc, Bill of Rights. CAT: William Leary, Perilous Missions (Univ. of Alabama Press 1984) passim. Bird & Son: Sterling Seagrave, Soldiers of Fortune (Time-Life Books 1981) 145-165; Eriksen Shilling author interview 1990. Sadly Erik did not mention this years in his memoir, Destiny. Pawley's career: Washington Star 8 Jan 1975. Currie: N.Y. Times 27 Mar 1956. Veterans' status: Ralph Vartabadian in Los Angeles Times 6 Jul 1991. Only on those occasions: R.T. Smith author interview 1989.

Question? Comment? Newsletter? Send me an email. Blue skies! -- Dan Ford

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